About 55% of the surface of Iran is covered by mountains and 45% of it is covered by vast plains and plains and lakes and hamons (deserts) and numerous salt fields. The mountains of
Iran tours are divided into four ranges: northern, Zagros, central and western (eastern).
The Northern Range, or Alborz, which reaches 950 km in length and covers an area equivalent to 51,500 square kilometers or about three percent of the country, is part of the large folds of the Alps and the Himalayas. This range starts from Ardabil province and passes east to the south of the Caspian Sea and joins the eastern mountains of Iran in the north of Khorasan. The highest point of Iran, Damavand mountain with a height of 5671 meters is located in this range. Other mountains such as Alam Kooh (4650 meters), Siahlan (4175 meters), Palun Gardan (4375 meters) and Shahvar (3945 meters) are in the same range.
The Zagros range, which is the largest and longest mountain range in Iran, starts from West Azerbaijan province and after passing through the provinces of Kurdistan, Hamedan, Kermanshah, Ilam, Lorestan, Khuzestan, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari, Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad, Bushehr and Fars and Hormozgan continue to the north of the Strait of Hormuz, where it joins the central mountains of Iran and the Makran Heights. The Zagros Mountains, with a length of about 1400 km and a width of 100 to 300 km, cover an area equivalent to 323,000 square kilometers or 20% of the country. The highest peak of the Zagros Mountains is called Dinar or Dena Mountain, which reaches a height of 4409 meters. Other high mountains of Zagros Mountains include Bardeh Rash (3602 m), Shahour (3309 m), Peru (3357 m), Alvand (3580 m), Oshtrankooh (4050 m), Zardkooh (4225 m) and Farghan ( 3267 meters).
The central mountain range of Iran stretches along the great diameter of Iran, ie from northwest to southeast, and connects the province of East Azerbaijan to the mountains of Sistan and Baluchestan. The length of the central mountain range is 1460 km and its width is 80 km on average and covers an area of 143,000 square kilometers or 8.5% of the country. Hezar mountain with a height of 4465 meters is the highest mountain in this series and Lalehzar (4351 meters), Jopar (4135 meters), Plovar (4233 meters) and Shirkuh (4000 meters) are other high mountains in this field. Are considered.
The eastern mountains of Iran are a series of discontinuous mountains that start from the north of Khorasan and continue south to Sistan and Baluchestan province or Makran mountains. Taftan mountain with a height of 3941 meters is the highest mountain in this series and Bazman (3503 meters), Bagheran (2595 meters), Ahangaran (2831 meters), Chehelton (3013 meters), Binalood (3211 meters) and Hezar Masjed ( 3040 m) are other important mountains. In addition to the above four mountain ranges, there are other mountains scattered in different parts of the country, the most important of which are the relatively high mountain ranges that separate the desert plain from the Lut desert. Nayband mountain with a height of 3009 meters is the highest peak of this group.
The border between the northern or Alborz mountain range and the central and eastern mountains is covered by vast deserts called Dasht-e Kavir and Kavir Lut, and other deserts such as Hamoon Jazmourian and Kavir Abarkuh, etc. are located between other mountain ranges. In addition to these plains and deserts, there are other plains such as the coastal plain of Bushehr province, Khuzestan plain, Caspian coastal plain and Moghan plain, which are not similar to the plains and salt marshes in Iran and the alluvium of several rivers in which Areas are flowing.
Facts about Damavand Mountain
Damavand Mountain, a mountain that is described as strangely beautiful by the description of the "white demon in the band". Few Iranians do not know where Damavand Peak is and how big it is. When you go to the top of Damavand, you can see the Caspian Sea, and if you turn south, you can see the cities of Varamin, Qom and Tehran.
Damavand mountain is 69 km away from Tehran, 62 km away from Amol and 26 km away from Damavand city. Mountaineering in Damavand has a long history. It was in 1837 that the Europeans succeeded in climbing Damavand Peak, which was done by a mountaineer named Tyler Thomson. The first document of the Iranians' ascent to this peak is related to 1857, in which the height of this peak is estimated at 6613 cubic meters.
Regarding the height of Damavand mountain, various sources can be cited, some of which, of course, offer different figures. The National Statistics Portal of Iran has mentioned the height of Damavand Mountain as 5610 meters. The altitude of the mountain is 5670 and 5671 meters, according to the National Geosciences Database and the NASA Earth Observatory website.
The Persian encyclopedia lists 6 different heights for this peak, most of which are 6400 and the lowest are 5543 meters. Relative height means measuring the height of a peak compared to the lowest valley between this peak and a higher peak, the relative height of Damavand with this criterion is 4661 meters. In the world, Damavand is the twelfth highest peak in the world in terms of relative height.
Damavand or Danbavand, according to a certain culture, has two components: tail meaning steam and steam and Avand suffix meaning having. The combination of these two words means steam and steam, which is probably the name given to it because it is volcanic.
The name of Damavand is mentioned in Pahlavi language and in the biography of Ardeshir Babakan in the form of Denbavand and in Sassanid inscriptions such as Naghsh-e-Rostam and Narsi inscriptions in Paikoli of Turkey as Dumbavand and Denbavand. In the letter of Tensor and in the book of the cities of Iran and the book of geography of Musa Khorni, this mountain is mentioned as Dembavand.
In Islamic sources, which are often in Persian and Arabic, the names "Dunbavand", "Dunbavand", "Dabavand" and "Damavand" are mentioned. Tail or tail in Pahlavi language means heat or steam and gas and vessel in this language means container. Therefore, with this attitude, we can translate the meaning of this word to the meaning of "steam vessel", which is not far from the mind due to the volcanic nature of Damavand Mountain. Wilhelm Aylers, a Western researcher who has studied the name Damavand, provides evidence that Denbount or Denbavand means a mountain of many views or a mountain of many faces. Damavand mountain is also mentioned in some books with the names of Lavasan, Azure stone mountain and Kronos.
Geographical location of Damavand mountain
The most beautiful and highest peak of Iran is located in the central part of Alborz mountain range and in the south of Caspian Sea and Larijan part of Amol city, with this account in terms of provincial divisions of this mountain is in Mazandaran province. Of course, in the eyes of historians and poets of the past, this mountain has always been considered part of the land of Mazandaran.
Damavand Mountain was formed in the fourth geological period of "Holocene". The lowest temperature of Damavand peak is 60 degrees Celsius in cold seasons and in other seasons this number reaches one and two degrees below zero.
Winds and storms in the foothills of Damavand peak usually blow at a speed of 70 kilometers per hour. This speed reaches 150 kilometers per hour at higher points. These winds usually blow from the west and northwest of Damavand. In spring; From the beginning of April to the end of May, Damavand peak has very stormy weather and continuous snowfall continues, which is very dangerous for climbing.
Professional mountaineers usually choose to travel to this peak from mid-June to late July. At this time, the climate of the region is relatively stable and greenery and freshness are rippling in it.
From the end of July to the first of October, Damavand mountain has a stable and snow-free weather and the range of glaciers is fixed. This causes a shortage of water on the slopes and the third court. From the beginning of October to the end of March, the weather in Damavand is unstable and stormy and the volume
Heavy snow can be seen on the slopes. No running water can be found in the mountains in these few months.
Damavand mountain waterfalls
Damavand Mountain has many natural attractions that many mountaineers and mountain nature lovers are attracted to see this spectacular mountain. One of the types of attractions that Damavand Mountain has is the existence of beautiful waterfalls in the heart of this mountain. In the following, we will introduce a number of waterfalls near Damavand Mountain so that you can become more familiar with them.
Ice Falls is a waterfall at an altitude of 5100 meters on Damavand Mountain, which is located on the southern front of Damavand Mountain. Those who reach this waterfall deviate from the main path of the peak. This waterfall is between 7 and 12 meters high.
Usually short periods of summer, for a short time, a stream of water flows past it. At other times this strip of water is usually frozen. Every year in summer, due to the sunshine at noon and for some time in the afternoon, the air temperature reaches above zero degrees and because of this, a little water falls from this icy waterfall.
When the temperature drops below zero again, the strip freezes again and an ice cascade forms. This waterfall is considered to be the highest waterfall in the Middle East in terms of altitude, being at an altitude of 5100 meters.
This waterfall is located in Lar Damavand region, 2 km east of Cheshmeh Lar property, in a beautiful valley called Barf Tangeh. Lar plain is located at the foot of Damavand peak. Lar plain stretches from the north to the mountains of Noor city of Mazandaran, from the east and northeast to Damavand mountain, from the southeast to Ira, Damavand and Pleur Mazandaran, from the south to Afjeh, Imam and Lavasan and from the west to Khatun Bargah and Garmabdar. . Lar area is about 73,500 hectares, which is also known as Lar National Park.
Damavand mountain glaciers
Although the height and height of Damavand peak is high and it snows a lot every year and the air temperature is cold, but due to the heat produced by volcanic activity and the high slope of the mountain, in this peak, unlike Sabalan and Alam Kooh mountains which witness We have considerable mountain glaciers in them, mountain glaciers are not so formed.
Of course, there are large glaciers, small mountain glaciers, and four glaciers on the northern front with very steep slopes that are suspended. Another example of such glaciers is located on the northeastern front of the mountain.
Sivaleh and Dubai Cell refrigerators
Glaciers around Damavand Peak are generally divided into two categories, first, the northern and northeastern glaciers around Damavand Peak. The first refrigerator in this category is called Sivaleh. This glacier is located on the northern front of the peak. The area of Sivaleh Glacier is 1.2 square kilometers, its circumference is 5.2 kilometers, its length is 2.4 kilometers and its average width is 450 meters.
The second glacier in this area is called Dubai Cell. This glacier is located on the northern front and its area is 0.7 square kilometers. The circumference of this glacier is 4.6 km, its maximum length is 2 km and its average width is 250 meters.
Khortab Sar Glacier is another glacier on the northern front that is slightly sloping to the northeast. The area of this glacier is 0.5 square kilometers. The circumference of Khortab Sar refrigerator is 3.6 km, its maximum length is 1.7 km, its average width is 300 meters.
Yakhar Glacier is located in the northeastern part and is considered as a suspended glacier due to its very steep slope. This refrigerator has hanging ice lamps, some of which are 50 meters long. The upper part of the Yakhar refrigerator is known as the snow roof or ice roof. This glacier has an area of 2 square kilometers and is stretched from an altitude of 4500 meters to 5600 meters.
The second category of glaciers in Damavand Peak is the glaciers and glaciers around it. The height of the snow line around Damavand Peak is at an altitude of 4500 meters (above sea level) and this means that above this altitude there must be glaciers or glaciers.
In addition, in the valleys and some slopes of 4500 meters and above, there are small glaciers, some of the most important of which are named here: Glacier and Zaminchal (in the eastern part), Sardagh Glacier (Between the western edges), Western Glacier, Kafar Darreh Glacier (between the southern and southeastern edges), Aspirin Sar Glacier (between the southern and southwestern edges).
Characteristics of Damavand Glaciers
Snow line: The snow line in the area of glaciers and snow glands around Damavand peak is 4400 to 4500 meters above sea level on average.
Very steep slope: The very steep slope of Damavand peak glaciers, which is from 26% to 40%, makes the ice of these glaciers not more than 20 meters thick. This slope also prevents deep cracks in the surface of the glaciers.
Very rapid fall of debris: At the end of the melting season, very rapid fall of debris, which is more severe in the Yakhar Valley glacier than other glaciers, is actually the movement of surface debris due to the high slope of the surface.
Frozen snow pillars: On the surface of the mentioned glaciers, there are frozen electric pillars with a height of 50 to 80 cm, some of which look like dolls made of ice. The intensity and angle of the sun, as well as the weather, are the factors that cause the formation of these snowmen. This is the reason why these frozen snow pillars appear more in summer.
Damavand Mountain Animal habitat
Damavand mountain region, due to its special location from the north to the forest and from the south to the mountains bordering the desert, has different species of animals. Around Damavand, predatory animals such as foxes, jackals, dogs and wolves are scattered. Some of these animals have also been seen at an altitude of 4,000 meters. There are bears in this area, but not at high altitudes and are mostly seen in the west and north.
In addition to predators, herbivores such as hogs, rabbits, deer and ewes are also found in the area. Total ewes and deer go to higher altitudes in warm seasons, but boars and rabbits live in the foothills of Damavand Mountain and do not go to higher altitudes in any season.
The area is home to a variety of birds such as predators and non-predators, including golden eagles, owls, bats, terns, partridges, parrots, woodpeckers and black-breasted birds.
Damavand Mountain is the habitat of many other reptiles, including 5 species of snakes, scorpions, beetles, mice and burrowers. Most bites in this area do not contain deadly toxins, and if the most dangerous one bites someone, it can be treated if it reaches a health facility within a few hours.
These bites are not usually seen at altitudes above 4,000 meters. On the summit of Damavand, there are the carcasses of several dead and frozen animals that have been seen there for several years. These carcasses belong to animals such as sheep and mountain goats and the cause of their death is unknown.
Nature and vegetation of Damavand mountain
Damavand vegetation is diverse and diverse, so that a particular species can be seen only at a certain height. Some of the plants in this area, which are named after Damavand, include Mir Hossein Damavandi hat, Damavandi kazel, Damavandi bell, Damavandi linen and Damavandi vetch. At altitudes of 3,200 to 3,500 meters, tall, thorny, interconnected grasses and shrubs can also be seen.
There are hedgehog bushes, thousand-thorn species, purple stack sainfoin bushes and stone flower-loving gypsum in Damavand. One of the species of vermouth called mountain artichoke, aromatic artichoke, mountain artichoke and eastern artichoke are also seen in Damavand mountain.
The slope of Damavand Mountain, which includes an altitude of 2000 to 3500 meters, is covered with anemones. This anemone, which is unique in the world, has been recorded in the authoritative botanical books of the world under the names of Lar and Rine anemones.
Immortal Golden Flower, Pears, Silver-leafed Claw, Silver-leafed Claw, Free-cutting, Hamedani leaf-claw, Purple spike enamel, Silver-colored enamel, Hyacinth beard, Humorous poppy, Tigal sugar, Wild star, Chestnut clover, Koohsari sorrel, Alborzi wormwood, shrub, plant broom, red grass, round rose, lamb grass, brittle oatmeal, Ararat grass, tongueless melika, pink grass, Herati rye, grassland barley, Azmaki Koohsari, Yasman Sokhreh , Gaz, Jashir and dozens of other types of plants are also included in the vegetation of Damavand.
Air pressure and rainfall in Damavand mountain
In Damavand, 1400 mm of rain falls annually. The rainfall in the highlands of Damavand is mostly in the form of snow, the snow that covers this soaring mountain in white. The air pressure in Damavand is one-half of the air pressure at sea level.
Mountaineering in Damavand
Mountaineering on Damavand peak has a long history. In Naser Khosrow's travelogue, it is mentioned that some people extract water and matches from inside a well at the top of Damavand peak. The first European ascent of the peak dates back to 1837, when Taylor Thomson climbed.
The first documented ascent of Iranians to this peak was made in 1857 by a mountaineer named Mohammad Sadegh Khan Qajar. According to the document left from this ascent, these people estimated the height of this peak at 6613 feet at that time.
Rivers around Damavand Mountain
Many rivers have formed around Damavand Mountain, which have influenced the nature of this region well. In the following, we will introduce some of these rivers.
Haraz River: The main branch of this river originates from Palun Gardan peak in Central Alborz, but some of its branches are irrigated by the northern and northeastern glaciers of Damavand Mountain.
Delichai River: The most watery branch of Haraz River, which originates from the west of Damavand.
Sefid Ab, Ghazal Darreh, Lar Bozorg rivers: All three of these rivers originate from a mountain range called Dokhaharan.
How to go to Damavand mountain?
There are several routes to Damavand, the most famous of which is the southern route. This route, which is one of the easiest routes to reach this mountain, is accessible through Pleur and Rine. In the middle of the asphalt road that connects the pleura and the rhine, there is a dirt path marked with a small sign.
This route reaches Sahib Zaman and Gosfandsara Mosque, which is located at an altitude of 3000 meters on Damavand Peak. This point is the origin of climbing Damavand peak from the southern route. This route continues to the third court, which is located at an altitude of 4150 meters. After the third court, from the left side of the icy waterfall, we reach the sulfur hill, which has been created due to recent volcanic activity. Continuation of this route reaches the peak with an almost steep slope.
The best time to climb Damavand peak
Professionals consider the best time to climb Damavand to be from mid-June to early September. At other times, climbing to the top of Damavand will be difficult and dangerous. A true climber always prioritizes health, even if he has traveled 70% of the way, he will go back down if he does not find the conditions favorable.
Climbing Damavand Peak must be done with trained and professional mountaineering groups, and climbing it alone is dangerous. A layer of base clothes, polar, full coat, gloves, hat, suitable mountaineering pants, woolen socks, gaiters and a pair of mountaineering batons are needed for summer climbing Damavand peak. Of course, the leaders of the mountaineering groups explain all these points to the members of the mountaineering group before moving to the peaks.
Damavand is a dormant volcano that can be reactivated. In 2007, smoke and fumes came out of this volcano, which led some to consider this as a reason for the reactivation of this volcano.
But the truth of the matter is that in rainy years, the infiltration of water into the peak, after colliding with hot rocks, creates a stream of water vapor on its surface, which in appearance is similar to volcanic activity. The diameter of Damavand volcano crater is 400 meters, which is covered by an ice lake. On the southern and northern sides of Damavand Mountain, there are signs of old craters.
Damavand National Day
Damavand Peak, with an area of about 2950 hectares, joined the group of areas under the management of the Environmental Protection Organization in 2002. Damavand peak in Iranian culture is a symbol of endurance, stability and glory. Damavand Mountain was registered as the first natural monument of Iran in the list of national monuments of the country and was among the four valuable regions in terms of environmental protection.
Damavand Mountain has a national day in the Iranian calendar. In the official calendar of our country, the 13th of July is named the National Day of Damavand. Usually on this day, Damavand Doost mountaineers gather in the city of Rineh Larijan and celebrate this day. In addition to Damavand Mountain, its national day celebration has also been recorded. In honor of this mountain and this day in 2012, its national music was unveiled with the voice of Salar Aghili.
Zagros mountain range with breathtaking views of nature
Once again, we endure the discrete miracle of nature control, meaning the Zagros Mountains. Then we express how the Zagros mountain range came into being? We even talk about the Zagros mountain range on the map and its old names. It is good to be eager to hear about the climate of the Zagros Mountains, and to talk about the Alborz and Zagros Mountains from another perspective. But we should not neglect the direction of the Zagros mountain range and the role of the plates colliding with it. Then we talk about in which provinces the Zagros mountain range is located and even its peaks. Of course, we follow the excitement of hearing by talking about the Central Zagros, the High Zagros and the Zagros Mountains such as Zardkooh and Oshtrankooh. Indeed, we quote the flora and fauna of the Zagros and the oak and the Iranian tribes in the Zagros region. Then, Babian, we will bring to life the temptation of watching in your heart, the descriptions of this beautiful mountain range.
There is a large and long arc of heights in the west, southwest and even in the south of Iran. Then the glorious and beautiful delicate pen depicts nature to draw an eternal painting, which is called Zagros. The Zagros, with its turbulent lakes and joyous waterfalls, offers a prospect of charm as a divine gift. Where the Zagros, as a manifestation of forgiveness with a view of pleasant rivers, flows white blood in the artery of the universe. You can even have a pleasant mountaineering experience on the high peaks of the Zagros Mountains. Also try snow skiing, climbing and climbing icy waterfalls and cliffs in ice climbing and… if you have the necessary equipment, skills and training, on the slopes of the Zagros. But it is not over yet, seeing all kinds of plants and lush forests shows another miracle of creation. A creation on the Zagros mountain range that fascinates and enchants you with its admirable beauty.
Zagros mountain range and collision of plates
It should be noted that between Europe and Asia, which are known as Eurasia in combination, is not seen in terms of geological criteria of territory and borders. That is, they are actually on a geological page.
But the rock is the outermost region of the Earth's crust, also called the lithosphere. Of course, this cortex is the place where life appears and occurs in the universe. Also, despite the presence of other elements, oxygen is considered to be more abundant than the chemical elements in this shell. Now in geology, the science that discusses the movement of lithosphere plates refers to plate technology.
Geologists also believe that the Zagros Mountains were created by the collision and movement of technical plates. Of course, this collision in the technical pages of Eurasia and Saudi Arabia has caused the emergence of the Zagros Mountains. Also, where these plates meet, you can see that the stones are wrinkled.
How did the Zagros mountain range come into being?
As mentioned, the Zagros Mountains should be recognized as the result of the collision and movements of the technical pages of Saudi Arabia and Eurasia. However, according to the science of geology, one of the causes of the Zagros orogenic cycle should be considered in the accumulation and accumulation of sediments. Gradually, however, over 60 million years, the thickness of these sediments increased.
Finally, with the burial of sediments, erosion, metamorphosis, movements and slow activity of technical plates, ie collision of plates, orogeny has taken place. Sediments in the Zagros Mountains, in addition to materials such as gypsum, lime, sand and… also include salt domes.
Of course, the large folds of the Zagros, as well as the salt domes, make the existence of oil in the Zagros possible. Even the growth of this mountain range is continuous and increasing. Also, with the formation of the Zagros Mountains, many beautiful waterfalls, forests and even valleys can be seen in its heart.
Old letters and the name of Zagros
You can know "Kor" and "Kor" from the ancient letters of Zagros. According to Sumerian mythology, it refers to the Zagros Mountains, which are located in the east of Sumer. But in the Avestan language, the meaning of "big mountain" is given to Zagar (‘za-G’r). The blind man is also known as another kingdom (Akkadian), who ruled over these areas. It even takes its name from the Indo-European nomads known as Sagarti in these areas. But in Persian, in ancient times, the Zagros mountain range was known as "Patagh". Of course, in ancient times, it was called "Kahistan", in Arabic, "Jabal" and also "Pahleh". You even see the name Zagros for the first time in the margins of the book (History of Iran from the beginning to the extinction of the Sassanids) written by Hassan Pirnia, a famous Iranian politician and historian. Also, after the writing of Pirnia, Zagros has been mentioned several times as "Mountain" and "Valley".
Zagros mountain range on the map
The Zagros or Zagros, despite being very old almost at the end of the Qajar rule, had just been seen on the map of Iran. This was even done by translations from European authors, or by the influence of Greek into Persian. Of course, from the map, we can see the increasing share of heights and mountains in the country and having the Zagros Mountains, at the highest level of these roughnesses. In fact, we should mention the Zagros, a majestic mountain range that is parallel to the ridges and has folds.
This thick, wide and wall-like width extends from the northwest to the south and southeast of Iran. A large mountain consisting of long, parallel but folded ridges, deep valleys, as well as steep slopes. The map also shows that the Zagros mountain range has high peaks. Most of the year, these peaks are covered with snow, white and beautiful clothes.
Separation of areas in the Zagros Mountains
It can be seen that the Zagros mountain range can be divided into three regions in terms of geological divisions, according to location and altitude. These sections include the North, Middle and South Zagros. But there is a difference between the North and South Zagros in terms of how they are folded and how they are placed on the salt domes. Of course, it should be known that what separates the northern Zagros from its southern part, Fars province, is the land of spring oranges. Also, in another type of division, the Zagros can be divided into two parts, the folded Zagros and the high Zagros. Indeed, you see vast plains of the folded Zagros, which are located between its mountain ranges. One of the characteristics of the folded Zagros is its anticline mountains. Its wide plains should also be considered due to the increased accumulation of sediments in the synovial hollows. The beginning of the folded Zagros can be seen from southern Kurdistan to the Strait of Hormuz.
But the highest mountains of Kermanshah province are located in this region of Zagros. Therefore, it is known as the high Zagros. Even the beginning of the high Zagros can be considered from the areas of Marivan to the Strait of Hormuz. The broken Zagros is another name given to the high Zagros. Also, the mountain material in this area is limestone, which is mostly made of calcium carbonate. Of course, it is broken because the high Zagros is under the influence of forces and pressures in sequence. There is also a lot of rain and snow in the high Zagros region. But the high Zagros can be seen in the northeastern part of the Zagros Mountains with high peaks. Also in this part of Zagros, you can not see a smooth surface. Also, due to the large fracture of limestone rocks, water penetrates into the ground. They also form the first row of the Zagros Mountains. In the high Zagros, the slopes have a steep slope.
In the central part of the Zagros mountain range, you can see the beautiful central Zagros, in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province with oak forests. Also in the fertile region of Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad, areas of Fars and Isfahan provinces, Central Zagros is also observed. Of course, the Central Zagros, due to the favorable climatic conditions, is rich in unique vegetation and safe for animals. It can even be considered one of the main centers of the honorable tribes of the country. Indeed, the Central Zagros region, with the amount of precipitation much higher than the average rainfall rate in the whole country should be considered. Also, the surface of the Central Zagros is covered with forests and pastures and the most prominent feature of these forests is its Persian oak trees. Of course, after the oak, it is the turn of the pistachio or pistachio tree and wild almond. Indeed, we can name the peaks of Oshtrankooh Lorestan, Qash Mastan, the highest peak of Dena mountain range, Zardkooh of Chaharmahal Bakhtiari province and… in Central Zagros.
What is the direction of the Zagros mountain range?
It is interesting to know that in the west and southwest of Iran, you will encounter the majestic Zagros mountain range. A mountain range that, with its authoritative passage from many provinces in the country, shows an exciting and enthusiastic view. It even enhances the greenery and freshness with its invigorating forests and beautifies it with its exhilarating snow. But have you ever wondered what the direction of the Zagros mountain range is?
We must say that the direction of the Zagros mountain range is from northwest to southeast. You should also know that on the northwestern slopes, you will encounter a lot of snow and rain. However, the amount of rainfall in the southern parts of the Zagros is decreasing.
Background of Zagros mountain range
The history of the Zagros in Iran may be attributed to about 100,000 years before the birth of Jesus Christ. This has been achieved based on the discovered signs of cave-dwelling and human life in the Zagros Mountains in the west of the country. It should even be mentioned that this mountain range was a place for Medes to live in the time of ancient Iran. Of course, Mohammad Qazvini has written about the name of Zagros in his 5-volume book "Allameh Essays".
"Zagros is the Greek name of the western mountain range of Iran, especially the Bakhtiari region in western Iran."
But in the great encyclopedia of Larus, the Zagros Mountains are also referred to as oil-rich valleys. Others historically consider the role of the Zagros Mountains to be effective in protecting the Medes as an Aryan people from repeated Assyrian attacks. The Medes had entered the Iranian plateau and were located east of the Zagros Mountains.
Zagros mountain range climate
It is clear that increasing the altitude decreases the temperature. However, this decrease in temperature is accompanied by an increase in precipitation in the mountainous region of Zagros. Of course, it should be known that the Zagros mountain range, in the western parts, causes the balance of water and air. This area also shows suitable living conditions. The highest rainfall of the country can be seen in the heights and highlands of Zagros. But let's name the climate of the peaks in the Zagros Mountains as the cold regions of the country. The weather conditions seem to be accompanied by severe cold in winter and moderate weather in summer. In winter, these areas of Zagros are very cold and with heavy snowfall.
Again about the weather in Zagros
Even the rainfall in the highlands is low in summer and very high in winter. You see more of this heavy rainfall in the northwest than in the southwest. Of course, it is better to know that snow often covers the high peaks above 3000 meters of the Zagros mountain range in a few months. Then the drunken and stealthy spring in a short time, separates the cold and hard winter from the summer. Indeed, we see a huge difference in temperature between day and night in this mountainous climate. But the Zagros valleys look very hot in summer despite the sun. However, the amount of sunlight is low in winter and you will encounter mild weather in winter.
Alborz and Zagros mountain ranges
In the northern parts of the country, the beautiful Jamal Alborz dynasty begins its stature from the efforts of the Republic of Azerbaijan to the west. Then a magnificent majesty stretches along the southern shores of the Caspian Sea and extends east to Turkmenistan and Afghanistan. Of course, due to the humidity from the Caspian Sea, the northern part of the Alborz mountain range is a manifestation of freshness. But its southern front gives you a dry and iran desert tours view. Also in the field of Alborz, it should be said, an area of 51,500 square kilometers is located in the territory of this mountain. By the way, let us talk about Damavand volcanic peak with its great power, as the highest peak in Iran in Ma'min Alborz. Damavand peak with a height of 5610 meters and other peaks of Alborz that can be used for adventurous and passionate mountaineering. But if we want to talk about the longest mountain range in Iran, we will talk about the beautiful Zagros.
The glorious Alborz and Zagros mountain ranges
But the Dena mountain range forms the view of the highest folds of the Zagros. Also know that the peak of "Qashmestan" in Dena mountain range with a height of 4450 meters is located in the highest mountain of Zagros. Zagros, from the west to the south of Iran, you can see the vastness of spiritual landscapes and the creation of passion for creation with a length of approximately 1400 km. Also know that the width of the Zagros mountain range varies from 100 to 300 meters in different places. Of course, you can see the area of this majestic mountain range is approximately equal to 20% of Iran's area and equivalent to 323,000 square kilometers. We should also talk about pleasant lakes, exciting waterfalls that add to the freshness of the space, as well as the greenery that is offered as a beautiful gift at the foot of the Zagros Mountains. We can even tell of the wonderful valleys in the heart of the Zagros, nestled between uneven and sharp rocks and cliffs. Indeed, in the continuation of the pristine nature of the Zagros, beautiful springs also show a perspective of refreshment.
In which provinces is the Zagros mountain range?
The Zagros Mountains, passing through Iran, will reach the mountainous province of "West Azerbaijan" in northwestern Iran. In this province, many beautiful pastures and forests caress your eyes. But then you will see the Zagros Mountains, in the province of "Kurdistan" with the original Kurdish culture and many attractions. Also in "Kermanshah" with the historical site of Biston in the Zagros Mountains, you will see many ancient monuments such as the valuable inscription of Biston. In "Hamedan", the Zagros mountain range shows itself in the height of Alvand mountain, with a height of more than 3000 meters. By the way, let me tell you about Ilam province, the ring jewel of the Zagros Mountains, in the western and southwestern regions of Iran. But you can also see the beautiful face of this mountain range in "Isfahan" province. It is even a pity that you neglect to visit the Zagros in the form of mountaineering on its highest mountain range, Dena.
Zagros mountain range passing through the provinces
Now, in the mountainous area of "Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad" province, see a view of the Zagros mountain range. Of course, the appearance of the Zagros in these areas, with its glaciers and roaring rivers, is astonishing and astonishing. But he will see the central part of this famous mountain range in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province with a unique and glorious appearance, especially in the high yellow peak of Bakhtiari mountain. When it comes to "Khuzestan", the province is surrounded by the Zagros Mountains from the north and east. Of course, you can see that the dense forests of the Zagros Mountains beautifully surround Lorestan province. But in "Fars Province", think about the separation of the folded Zagros and the high Zagros. The manifestation of the Zagros mountain range in the provinces of "Bushehr" and "Kerman" can also be seen in the course of the Iranian march. You will even see the extension of the Zagros mountain range in the beautiful view of the mountains of Hormozgan province.
Let us mention the "Saridash" mountain in the Bozqush mountain range from the mountains that form the Zagros mountain range. But know the cold mountain with a lot of snow "Chehel Cheshmeh" as one of the highest heights of Kurdistan. Indeed, one of the mountains on the outskirts of the Zagros, Panjeh Ali mountain near Qorveh should be mentioned. Also know that the source of Gardakanieh and Cham Sang Siah rivers is also from this mountain. Even now it is better to talk about "Paravo" mountain in the Zagros mountain range. This encircling mountain of Kermanshah has been gradually submerged in the third period of geology. But we must also talk about Alvand Mountain, the depth of valleys, springs and other beauties that are a manifestation of divine creation. Indeed, the Bakhtiari Mountains are often covered with snow and watery rivers originate from them. Among them, we can mention the mountains of "Saldaran", "Qaravl Khaneh", "Rig" and mountains.
Zagros mountains are a symbol of resistance
"Yellow Mountain" or Bakhtiari Yellow Mountain is one of the prominent mountains of Zagros in the southwest of the country. Of course, in the mountains of the Central Zagros, you can see the mountain "Hezar Dareh" and even the mountain "Clare", which is home to many birds. Indeed, "Pishkuh" and "Poshtkuh" are from the Zagros Mountains in Lorestan. It should also be noted that Dena is not only a mountain, but also a mountain range in the Zagros Mountains. Even the Dena mountain range has a number of peaks above 4,000 meters. But "Oshtrankooh" should be considered as one of the highest mountains of Zagros, with unique manifestations of nature. When it comes to "Qalikuh", it should be said about its evergreen cypress tree, which continues to survive among its rocks and cliffs in Aligudarz city. Other mountains of Zagros can be named "Abunil", "Abidar", "Atashkadeh or Atashgah", "Aslandagh" and mountains.
The peaks of the Zagros Mountains
The peaks of the Zagros Mountains with their special beauties, pristine nature, are life-giving. The peaks of the Zagros, which are refreshing by inhaling air that shows no pollution, are popular with many climbers. The peaks of the Zagros that enliven you and invite you to mountaineering, ice climbing and other vital sports. But first we start with the beautiful Dena mountain range and its popular peaks. It is even better to start from the high peak of "Kol Qudvis" Dena with a height of 4340 meters, which promises an exciting mountaineering with a long and attractive route. Now, we come to the part where we talk about the middle of Le Corre, with a height of 4265 meters. The peaks that you have a hard and exhausting climb in front of you in winter. Even know that the ascent routes of these peaks in winter are difficult to cross and inaccessible. Therefore, climbing these peaks requires a well-trained, experienced team and even complete mountaineering equipment.
By the way, let us make a brief reference to the peak of "Karmo Dena Snow" in the Zagros Mountains. It should be known that this peak with its height of 4150 meters, is ready to receive skilled climbers, rock climbers and ice climbers. Now let's talk about the exciting peaks of "Sky Tower", "Mung" and "Ghezelqaleh or Mama Castle" with a height of 3180 meters. The peaks on which climbing, create exciting and sweet adventures for those who are interested. But the highest peak of Dena mountain range is found in "Qashmistan". Know that skiing and ice skating on the glaciers of the Zagros peaks is a brave thing to do. Even the summit of "Morgel" and going to the summit of "Kolgardel" is a real thrill. To tell the truth about the peak of "Shahankooh" with a height of 4040 meters, in Isfahan province. But along Oshtrankooh with Green Mountain, you will encounter the Zagros Mountains. Of course, from the peaks of Green Mountain, we can mention "Balkoud", "Hijdehhial" and "Valash" peak with a height of 3624 meters and 2.
This mountain range is full of waterfalls due to its geological location and climate. Important waterfalls of Zagros include Ab-e Sefid waterfall, Nojian waterfall, Wark waterfall and Kamardogh waterfall.
Oshtrankooh and its majestic peaks
It is known as the Iranian Alps, the same ocean that is beautiful in the east of Lorestan province. Of course, this mountain is also known as one of the highest mountain ranges in the Zagros. But know that you will see the highest peak of Oshtrankooh, in the peak of "Sanbaran" with a height of 4150 meters. Indeed, the snow-capped and high octagonal peaks of Oshtrankouh look like a caravan of camels in attractive scenery. Therefore, the mountain is known as Shtarkuh or Oshtrankuh. Of course, from the high peaks of Oshtrankooh, you can see "Gol Gol" with an exciting view of the beautiful Gohar River and the peak of "Gol Gohar" with a height of 3950 meters. You can also mention the peak of "Mirzaei" height of 3800 meters, "Fial Sean" 3850 meters, "Mehrjam" 3850 meters and.. You should know that glacial valleys in Oshtrankooh, which is known as Chal, can be seen, such as "Shah Takht" and 2 Chal.
In the western part of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province in the north-central Zagros mountain range, you will encounter Zardkuh. Really know that the highest peak of Zardkooh, which is also called Zardkooh, is "Klonchin" which is located at an altitude of 4221 meters. Then enjoy a joyful and refreshing mountaineering experience. Of course, this mountain, which is also called Zardkuh Bakhtiari, is located between two rivers of Koohrang, which are very cold and watery, and Bazaft, with the most pristine and original forest landscapes. But it should be known that the largest rivers originate from this mountain and are the treasure of the country's natural water resources. Of course, the peaks of this mountain range are like "Kino", "Zardeh" and "Cheri". We should also mention the peaks of "Chagaleh", with a height of 4136 meters and "Hafttanan" with a height of 4109 meters. Even the peak of "Darvish Kozli" with a beautiful stone pyramid view, "Nazi" and…. They are also from the peaks of Zardkooh.
Have you ever wondered what kind of vegetation the Zagros mountain range has?
So know that what is often seen in the forests of Zagros are oak trees. Coriander or mountain pistachio, maple trees, sparrow tongue with dried and oval fruits are also found in the forests of Zagros. Of course, wild fruits can be called wild pears with many healing properties and cold and dry nature. Of course, a variety of almonds, hawthorn or hawthorn and beautiful and glorious valleys that are full of blossoms of vibrant purple trees, is also possible in the Zagros Mountains. Even above the oak trees, you will encounter juniper or cypress. Blackthorn or Qarahtikan, which is a small shrub, is also found in the Zagros. But we should not neglect sycamore, pomegranate, zarbin or plant sage, sumac, jujube, hair and… in the Zagros mountain range.
Zagros mountain animals
Iranian wildlife in this region has a diverse range. Undoubtedly, the biological richness and diversity of animal life is very high in the vast land of Zagros. But let us mention the huge Dari partridge, Homa, which is called Homa Saadat in Persian mythology. Now we call the tall bird "white forehead stone", "pelican or gray", "white-tailed deer" and "golden eagle". Bahri or hawk, eagle, red woodpecker and… are also among the birds of Zagros region. Now in the field of mammals in the Zagros Mountains, you can also see leopards, rams, ewes, boars, wolves, brown bears, and so on. Due to the large size of this mountain range, a diverse range of Iranian butterflies live in this area.
See also the whole goat, hyena, lynx, and large horseshoe bat with narrower skulls than other bats. It is the turn of reptiles such as lizards, snakes and even turtles, lizards and amphibians such as toads, salamanders and frogs. But you should not easily pass all kinds of fish in the lakes and rivers of this mountain. Among the Iranian animals that live in this region, the Persian squirrel is also famous.
Zagros and oak
The oak of the Zagros forests is considered as an ancient treasure and this mountain range finds a new meaning with the growth of oak trees and shrubs. Also, due to the widest growing area of oak species in the Zagros, you can see a lot of beauty of oak trees. Of course, the Zagros is a place where oak trees grow, with tall and concave leaves and claw-shaped. But the fruit of oak trees in the forests of the Zagros Mountains, like hazelnuts, and in the past was consumed as food. Be aware, sometimes the height of these trees reaches 50 meters. Also, due to their wide trunks, the diameter of the trunks of these trees is even equal to 3 meters. Oak trees are found in different species in the Zagros Mountains, including "Darmazu", "Persian oak" and "Yevl". Of course, you should know that oak is used medicinally and according to traditional medicine, it is considered to have a warm and dry nature.
Iranian ethnic groups in the Zagros region
The fragrance of life and the breeze of life from ancient times, in the Zagros mountain range, caresses the human breath. Of course, you will find the Zagros majestic, glorious, fertile and full of richness of blessings. Lush pastures that are suitable for livestock and livestock and lands that are ready for agriculture are the characteristics of this mountain range. But the beautiful and pristine nature of the Zagros, from the northwest of Iran to its southeast, is manifested as a colorful decorative painting. Then the Zagros mountain range makes different ethnic groups a place of gathering and living. The Basukti mountain range, which is the source of many of Iran's great rivers, such as the Karun and Karkheh, is the source of life. It is even there that you see the tribes of Iran, such as zealous and militant Kurds and Lors with their undeniable human characteristics settled in the plains and foothills of this mountain range.
Iranian tribes in the Zagros Mountains
Of course, love for the land of overturned tulips, soaring snow-capped mountains and the growing waterfalls of the Zagros, attracts the Iranian people. Also know that the brave Qashqai people, who do not accept defeat in the struggle at any cost, live in this mountain range. Also, the brave Bakhtiari tribes, who have learned hospitality from their generous host, the Zagros Mountains, are from other tribes. But despite the oak, pistachio and almond forests of the Zagros Mountains, it also welcomes other tribes and nomads. Also, the pleasant views of the beautiful plains and valleys with water and even the humid climate of the Zagros Mountains make the issue of life possible for many ethnicities and tribes of Iran.
Sakhaye Zagros mountain range
Take a closer look at the unique nature and beauty of white snow on the peaks of the Zagros Mountains. Even look at the splendor of the exciting springs and waterfalls, the mountain that slides down like a transparent slide. Now let's say of the beautiful and marvelous valleys that, like the Shears Valley, it is a perfect example of (tourism) or geotourism. Where the fascinating view of the limestone cliffs around the gorge rises and the roaring Samira River flows through it. It then offers plenty of mountain fruits, such as delicious grapes, wild figs and pears. Wait and never think of the beauties of the Zagros Mountains as finished. We should also mention the many wetlands and reservoirs and their margins. Of course, it should also be mentioned about Mozard Zilai Kohgiluyeh and Boyer Ahmad wetlands, which is the bride of Zagros. We even talk about the generosity of the Zagros mountain range with its glory many times, but we also appreciate the value of this divine blessing.